INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Urinary and Renal System

The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra. The purpose of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood ph.

LatinSystema urinarium

Urinary Tract: The urinary tract is the body’s drainage system for removing urine, which is made up of wastes and extra fluid. For normal urination to occur, all body parts in the urinary tract need to work together, and in the correct order.

 The Kidneys:

Have an extensive blood supply via the renal arteries which leave the kidneys via the renal vein. Each kidney has functional units called nephrons, following filtration of the blood wastes (in the form of urine) leave the kidneys via the ureters (these are tubes of smooth muscle matter that direct and push the urine towards the urinary bladder)

 Urinary Bladder:

This is where the urine is stored and expelled from the body by urination. Male and Female urinary systems are very similar and only differ in the length of the urethra.

 The structure of the system:

 The Urinary System is responsible for the production and transfer of urine to the point at which it can be excreted.

The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates. They are located on the left and right in the retroperitoneal space, (between the dorsal wall and parietal peritoneum) They are located on the left and right in the retroperitoneal space, and in adult humans are about 12 centimetres (4 12 inches) in length.[1][2] They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder.  and in adult humans are about 12 centimetres (4 12 inches) in length.[1][2] They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder.

Urine begins within the function units of the kidneys, the nephrons. Urine then flows through the nephrons, through converging tubules called collecting ducts. These ducts then for the minor calyces, followed by the major calyces that then join the renal pelvis. Urine then continues down to the ureter, transporting the urine to the urinary bladder.

 

In Males:

The urethra begins at the internal urethra orifice in the trigone of the bladder.

In Females:

The urethra is much shorter, beginning at the bladder neck and finishing at the vaginal vestibule.

 

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