INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Position and Action of Muscles – Facial

Positions & actions of the facial muscles

MUSCLES OF THE FACE

The facial muscles are just under the skins subcutaneous muscle they control facial expressions.

The facial muscles are located just below the subcutaneous muscle and they control our facial expressions. They generally originate from the surface of the skull bone (rarely the facia) and insert on the skin of the face.

For the Aesthetic Practitioner it is essential to possess knowledge and understanding of the forehead, eyebrow, and eyelid as this provides a foundation for performing facial beauty treatments. These 3 specific units are also interlinked so the practitioner can understand the location of each muscle and their function this will enable the different successful treatments and specific outcomes to be met.

Eyebrow position is achieved by a balance of muscles which surround the brow and eye area – FrontalisTemporalisOrbicularis oculiCorrugator supercilia and Procerus to achieve symmetry.

Lip position is achieved by a balance of muscles which surround the mouth area – Orbicularis orisBuccinatorRisoriusDepressor Labii inferioris and Depressor anguli oris.

Cheek position is achieved by a balance of muscles on each side of the face – Zygomaticus, MasseterLevator labii superioris and Platysma.

Muscle name

Location

Action

Frontalis

Forehead

Raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead

Corrugator

Between the eyebrows

Draws the eyebrows down and together into a frown

Orbicularis oculi

A circular muscle around the eyes

Closes the eye

Risorius

A triangular muscle that extends diagonally from the masseter muscle to the corner of the mouth

Draws the corners of the mouth out and up into a smile

Buccinator

Inside the cheeks. It is attached to the upper and lower jaws

Compresses the cheeks

Zygomaticus (major and minor)

Extends diagonally from the zygomatic to the corners of the mouth

Lifts the corners of the mouth up and back into a smile

Procerus

Between the eyebrows on the bridge of the nose

Draws the eyebrows inwards and wrinkles the bridge of the nose

Nasalis

Front of the nose and around the nostrils

Opens and closes the nostrils

Levator labii

Around the upper lip

Raises and draws back the upper lips and nostrils

Levator anguli

Extends from the upper jaw to the corner of the mouth

Elevates the angle of the mouth

Depressor labii

Around the lower lip

Pulls down the lower lip to one side

Depressor anguli

Extends from the lower jaw to the corner of the mouth

Depresses the angle of the mouth

Orbicularis oris

A circular muscle around the mouth

Closes the mouth

Triangularsis

Extends over the chin from the corner of the lower lip

Draws the corners of the mouth down

Masseter

A flattened muscle which extends zygomatic arch to the mandible

Raises the jaw to exert pressure when chewing

Mentalis

Front of the chin

Raises the lower lip and wrinkles the chin

Platysma

Sides of neck and chin

Draws the corners of the mouth down and back

Sterno-cledio-mastoid

Lies across each side of the neck. Runs from the sternum to the clavicle and temporal bone

Rotates the head and flexes the neck

Occipitals

The back of the head

Draws the scalp backwards

Splenius capitis

A posterior muscle that extends from the spine to the temporal bone and occipital bone

Extends the head and neck

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