INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Pathologies of the Blood
  • Haemophilia: a hereditary disorder in which blood clots very slowly due to deficiency of certain clotting factors. The severity of the disorder varies. In mild cases, the person may bleed more than expected after injury or surgery while in severe cases a slight bump can trigger chronic internal bleeding which can be fatal.
  • Thrombosis – this is where a blood clot (thrombus) and if enlarged may result in the clot preventing blood flow to an organ.
  • Coronary Thrombosis – where a blood clot forms in the coronary artery and blood flow is restricted or blocked to the heart.
  • Pulmonary Embolism – the pulmonary artery becomes blocked by an embolus (which can be a clot)
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) – Most of us think of this as associated with long haul flights so we are familiar with the term. It is a deep vein clot known as Phlebothrombosis. Usually found in the legs which become swollen and tender.  If the clot becomes detached this may then block the pulmonary artery.
  • Anaemia – is a reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood and it is characterised by the reduced number of red blood cells or a reduction in the amount of haemoglobin in the blood. It can be caused by a loss of blood, lack of iron, or the destruction or impaired production of red blood cells. Symptoms of anaemia include fatigue, paleness, breathlessness on exertion, lowered resistance to infection and an intolerance to the cold.
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