INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Pathological Changes of the Skin

When pathological changes occur in the skin it will be indicated by signs that be recognised on the surface of the skin. When these signs are visible then certain Aesthetics treatments may not be suitable or advised and if they proceed then extra care must be taken when treating the client.

What are the signs that the Practitioner should be aware of and look for?

Spots: Blackheads and spots may become visible on the surface of the skin.  Sebum blockage and pigment deposits cause this, and sites affected are the face, chest and back.

Petechia: Dot-like bleeding of the skin, which remains visible as red or brown dots for some time, caused by bleeding into the skin.

Hematoma (Bruising): Bruises appear because of an injury and they change colour as the haemoglobin breakdowns (will appear as blue-black, red then blue to yellow/green to green) this process will probably take place over several days.

Cyst: A membranous sac or cavity of abnormal character just under the surface of the skin, which contains a fluid or solid substance.

Eczema: Eczema is a disease of the dermis with periodic inflammatory reddening, papule, and small blisters, which have many causes. Eczema often is combined with itching. It can be caused by irritating toxic as well as allergic substances. Eczema most frequently appears in the areas with a high production of sebum, for example in the fold between mouth and nose or the middle of the upper back.

Psoriasis: Although the cause of the condition is unknown it is a relentless (though benign) disease. The condition may take time to develop and an individual may suffer with the skin condition throughout their life.  A genetic disposition to the disease is known and is believed to be linked to the auto-immune system.

Ulcer: This appears on the surface of the skin and is an open sore, often just appearing as a bump and will present a discharge of pus. An ulcer may take time to heal or fail to show any indication of healing.

Birthmarks: They are not hereditary and can have many different appearances. They start out as growths in pigmenting cells and blood vessels of the skin. Everyone has lentil-shaped marks, round brown, or black marks. Situated on the cheek or the malar bone they called “beauty marks”.

Liver Spots: Often appear on the torso and the thigh, are lightly brown, often egg-shaped, or irregular. ‘Blood vessel marks’: appear as flat or ball-shaped spots, sometimes as tumours. They have a light to blue-red colour. The sun can also cause them, or they can appear as we age, especially on the back of the hands.

Port Wine Mark: A port-wine mark is an inborn, sharply edged violet coloured mark, which varies from light to dark. This anomaly is mainly found in the neck, sometimes in the middle of the forehead or on the eyelids.

Strawberry Mark: A strawberry mark consists of blood-filled connected cavities. The strawberry mark mostly develops on the eyelids, cheeks, or lips. This anomaly can be removed by laser surgery.

Hives: These are usually the result of an allergic reaction and appear as small bumps either irregular or round and appearance, they can be either white or pink.

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